Home Procedures & Practice Text

1. Procedure Practice

2. Morse Code Characters

3. Procedure Characters

4. Acronyms

5. Plain Text For Practice

6. Morse & Apple Pie

7. GB2CW Introduction

1. Procedure Practice
Overline indicates that characters are blended together e.g: BT used as separation between text or HH error/correction.

First listen diligently on your chosen band. My first choice is 40m. 7∙030MHz is the QRP low power location where most operators use relatively slow Morse. You may respond to a CQ (general call) or offer your own as example here:

QRL? QRL? = Is this frequency in use?

If there is a response do not reply with: OK = okay, SRI = sorry, TKS/TNX = thanks. You've already (unintentionally) interrupted a QSO = contact. Don't make it any worse. Just simply move on.

If no response then proceed: CQ CQ CQ DE G4PVB G4PVB K

CQ = general call, DE = from, G4PVB = my callsign, K invitation for any station to transmit a reply.


CT = Commencing Transmission, G4PVB DE M6UAA M6UAA, KN = invitation for named operator to transmit.

Now that communication has been established it is customary to exchange: RST = signal report Readability Strength Tone, NAME IS, QTH IS = location. Subsequent options include: WX = weather sunny, cloudy, rain, Temp C,

FB = Fine Business, CPY or CPI = copy, BK = Break or polite interruption, R = Roger all received OK,

FB UR SIGS DR OM/OP = fine busines your signals dear old man/operator. QRS PSE = slow please.

MY QSL OK VIA BURO = My QSL card sure okay via the bureau.

When responding to a CQ I only state their callsign once (he already knows his own callsign) but transmit mine twice so he knows he got it right.

When CL = closing, send 73 = best wishes. DO NOT SEND 73S as the plural is already in the plain 73.

VA = end of work, TU = thank you often followed by two dits . . as a cheerio. The response is usually one or two dit .

Many overseas operators may have a limited command of English (if at all) and even then it will possibly be a colonial interpretation so it is advisable to conform to customary procedure. If you do not then be prepared that you will be ignored. Russian stations, in particular, will often abruptly close on those that deviate from procedure.

Zero-beat (tune your radio transmission EXACTLY to the signal you receive) so distant operator may have a better chance of hearing you especially if his filters are in use. For your email avoid similar hyphen & underscore. For over a century the only change:

@ = .--.-. but some just use AT.

2. Morse Code Characters
Communicate online with Morse Code via morsecode.me
Also, receive Reuters News via Morse Code.

a .-

b -...

c -.-.

d -..

e .

f ..-.

g --.

h ....

i ..

j .---

k -.-

l .-..

m --

n -.

o ---

p .--.

q --.-

r .-.

s ...

t -

u ..-

v ...-

w .--

x -..-

y -.--

z --..

0 -----

1 .----

2 ..---

3 ...--

4 ....-

5 .....

6 -....

7 --...

8 ---..

9 ----.

3. Procedure Characters
(Overline = characters blended together)

. .-.-.-

, --..--

: ---...

? ..--..

' .----.

- -....-

/ -..-.

" .-..-.

@ .--.-.

= -...-

! ---.

CT Commencing transmission

CQCall To Quarters - Calling any station

K Invite any station to transmit

KN Invite named station to transmit

R Roger - All received OK

R Decimal point (between numbers)

AS 5 Wait 5 minutes

BK Break in transmission

BT Break text =

AR End of message

VA End of work

CL Closing down

HH Error

HI Humour

73 Best wishes

55 Good luck

88 Love & kisses

TU Thank you

.. Cheerio

A picture may be worth a thousand words when describing something. But a word may be worth a thousand pictures when explaining it. Radio telegraphy is like that. 'Q' codes enable us to convey a significant amount of accurate information with just a few keystrokes. CW's text oriented nature makes it well suited for explaining things to an international community of multi lingual amateur radio enthusiasts.

QRP Low power 5 Watts

QRS Send slow

QRM Man made noise

QRN Natural noise

QSB Fading

QSL Contact

QRH Frequency varies

QRL Is this frequency in use?

QRX Standing by

QRZ Who is calling?

QRG frequency

QRXcall again

QRTcease/suspend operation

QRUI have nothing for you

QRU?Have you anything for me?

4. Acronyms
Some of the common acronyms you'll encounter. More at:

ACC ACCessory connector

AF Audio Frequency

AFSK Audio Frequency Shift Keying

AGC Automatic Gain Control

ALC Automatic Level Control

AM Amplitude Modulation

ANF Automatic Notch Filter

ANL Automatic Noise Limiter


APF Audio Peak Filter

ARRL Amateur Radio Relay League

ATT ATTenuator

ATU Antenna Tuning Unit

BCB BroadCast Band

BFO Beat Frequency Oscilator

CAP Civil Air Patrol

COMP COMPression

DSP Digital Signal Processing

DTMF Dual Tone Multi-Frequncy - (touch tone)

FAQ Frequently Asked Questions

FM Frequency Modulation

FSK Frequency Shift Keying

IF Intermediate Frequency

IMD Inter-Modulation Distortion

LCD Liquid Crystal Display

LSB Lower Side Band

MARS Military Affiliated Radio Service

MIC MICrophone

NB Noise Blanker

NR Noise Reduction

PA Power Amplifier

PBT Pass Band Tuning

PCB Printed Circuit Board

PLL Phase Locked Loop

PTT Push To Talk

QRP low power operation

RIT Receiver Incremental Tuning

RTTY Radio TeleTYpe

RX short for Receive or Receiver

SSB Single Side Band

SWR Standing Wave Ratio

TCN Tone CoNtrol

TCXO Temperature Compensated crystal Oscilator

TPBT Twin Pass Band Tuning

TS Tuning Step

TX short for Transmit or Transmitter

USB Upper Side Band

VFO Variable Frequency Oscilator

VOX Voice Operated transmission

YMMV Your Milage May Vary (standard disclaimer)

5. Plain Text For Practice
Whilst on the Verulam ARC Sunday morning HF net I experienced difficulty tuning up. Mick M0MMI: "You've had that problem before Bob on a damp day like today." Yes, he was right, I'd forgotten. Fearing the inconvenience and expense of replacing moisture ridden feeder I took a sideways move. Clean, empty honey jar with WD40 in the bottom soaked up with cotton wool make up pads. Then thoroughly wipe down cables and insulators. I was staggered at the amount of black dirt that lifted. Now I can tune up first time every time. Norman G8ATO concurred with his experience of dirty antenna mountings on motor vehicles. I guess most equipment subject to long term outside exposure will attract grime. It's true what they say: "Cleanliness is next to 1:1 SWR." 73 Bob G4PVB

My kind of life doesn't come with instructions. Consequently I've found out the easy way (because simply nobody told me otherwise) that: As drawing is to art and rhythm is to music then so Morse is to radio. There is no manual for hobby radio... you must experience it. Let me guide you my way, the easy way, on Sundays 8pm 145250MHz FM. See you there and don't be late! p.s. Contrary to popular opinion there is in fact an exclamation Morse character as below.
! ---.

What is Morse? It's impossible to exaggerate the importance of Morse. Morse is the simplest means of transmitting a recognizable signal between stations. Morse is, at its simplest, turning on and off the transmitter in a manner that represents letters or numbers, according to the Morse code. Morse, by its nature, is likely to work between two stations when some other modes fail due to interference or sheer lack of signal strength, given the narrow bandwidth required and the low signaling rate, although no mode is perfect. Morse is also a great way to communicate when there is no common language.

Whilst a Morse qualification is not needed by the present day licence, amateurs are realising that they are missing out on a lot of fun and DX by not using Morse, not to mention the fact that they are limiting themselves to part of the total amateur bandwidth available.

Remember, CW is the easiest way to work DX and it's a skill that stays with you for life.

Plain Text - Source: Verulam Amateur Radio Club newsletter May & April 2015: Morse Code early days. It all started with the expansion of the railways in the early 1800s. For safety reasons and for the control of two way traffic on the lines, it was essential that signal men in their signal boxes, (who controlled both flag type signals and points), could communicate with others further down the line at a speed faster than a steam train or a horse could run.

The optical telegraph was really only suitable for use from hill top to hill top with line of sight between them. Railways, on the other hand, "don't like hills" and were built with very gradual inclines and like canals, were routed around hills.

However, early experiments with electricity had shown that cause and effect were almost instantaneous. A system, based on the binary where the current only had to be "on" or "off", was invented by Samuel Morse in the USA in 1837.

Moreover, by using an "inker" at the receiving end, a permanent record was created in case there should be any dispute at a later date about what had been sent. However, within a few years Britain, the USA and much of Western Europe were criss-crossed with telegraph systems using copper wires supported on poles and all using various versions of the Morse Code, (Continental code, American code, etc.)

Eventually, the "International Morse Code", (the one in use today), evolved but it took several years to displace the older ones. Very soon, telegraph operators listening to the distinctive clicking of the inker learned to translate the sound into text more quickly than reading from the paper tape, and the inker and its tape were largely dispensed with.

Then came two important developments: Teletype machines for use on landlines and spark transmitters for "wireless transmission". These "Teleprinters" were often used for printing the paper tape stuck to hand delivered "Telegrams".

Clock for coastal & ship radio rooms
Since early in the 20th century, the radio frequency of 500 kilohertz (500kHz) has been an international calling and distress frequency for Morse code maritime communication. For most of its history, the international distress frequency was referred to by its equivalent wavelength, 600 metres, or, using the earlier frequency unit name, 500 kilocycles [per second] or 500kc. Subsequently (regarding the Titanic rescue radio chaos) periods were allocated to monitoring the distress frequency.

As a visual memory aid, a typical clock (picture attached) in a ship radio room would have the silence periods marked by shading the sectors between h+15 to h+18 and h+45 to h+48 in RED. Similar sectors between h+00 to H+03 and h+30 to h+33 are marked in GREEN which is the corresponding silence period for the later voice frequency SSB/AM2182 kHz.

In addition, during this silent period all coastal and ship stations were required to monitor the frequency, listening for any distress signals. All large ships at sea had to monitor 500kHz at all times, either with a licensed radio operator or with equipment that detected an automatic alarm signal.

BTW: When children ask for the time they often qualify their enquiry with: "Do you have the right time please?" Ever wondered how there can be so many 'times' e.g. BST British Summertime, GMT Greenwich Mean Time and UTC Universal Time Coordinated? Have you considered that without the phrase: "Turn clockwise" we would find it difficult to convey that instruction without gestures? Well... me too! Join me on my quest for enlightenment...

British Summer (day light saving) Time begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of October.

Spring forward Fall back.

GMT is an absolute time reference and doesn't change with the seasons. UTC (atomic based) is the successor to GMT and for most purposes they are the same.

"That clock over there has stopped so it's useless."
"Well no, it does display the correct time at least twice a day!";)

Richard of Wallingdon's clock replica displayed in the Abbey at St Albans. Bob G4PVB page 97 RadCom February 2016

Three letters below edited by Don Field G3XTT and published in Practical Wireless magazine Sep 2015.

Ladders & Other Matters
Dear Don, Many amateur radio enthusiasts use ladders. It's usually men, who also tend to be the bread winners. First lesson: always obey the 1 in 4 rule. For every four units of measure up, measure one unit out. This ensures optimum friction of the ladder to prevent it slipping. Also, don't overreach. Ladder stays are relatively cheap so get one. Hold the rungs, not the runners, so if your feet slip you have a hold on the rungs. When you're at the very top of a ladder, you only fall once. You won't get a second chance. The most dangerous place on a ladder is to be standing on the bottom rung to give it extra stability while someone is at the top working. If they drop a tool... ensure you have eye protection and a hard hat with a chin strap so it won't fall off if you look up. HSE ladders safety is covered in the PDF document below.

I've recently recieved the book Antenna Towers for Radio Amateurs published by ARRL. At first I thought it was a rip-off because at 30 it's slim compared to, say, the Radio Communication Handbook. But what price safety I muse. It's available from RSGB book sales. In fact, it contains a stunning amount of information on the subject of towers and their safety. I'm now getting my confidence to the point of installing my own tower here in the back garden. All I have to do now is convince the Station Manager it's a good idea!

On a completely different subject, the same Station Manager has forbidden me to buy an oscillosope. "All you want to do is play with Lissajous patterns.. admit it!" Fortunately, Alex M0HCL came to my rescue with a link a PC soundcard oscilloscope. It comes complete with two onboard oscillators so now, yes, I can Lassajous to my heart's content. Children at radio rallies will love it. In the 1960s/70s it seemed as though every self-respecting science fiction film had an oscilloscope in the background displaying Lassajous patterns.
Bob G4PVB Page 84 PW September 2015

Source from RSGB: Morse

If you think operating in Morse Code is something that belongs to the past century, think again! Morse operation remains a popular mainstay of amateur radio and it continues to attract new interest.

Morse code lies at the very origins of amateur radio.

Originally, amateur radio communications occurred exclusively in Morse. After 1920, voice-capable radio transmitters became commonly available, but Morse code has carried on as a popular area of amateur radio.

Until 2003 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) required assessment of Morse code proficiency as part of the global amateur radio licensing procedure. However, since the World Radiocommunication Conference of 2003 (WRC-03), Morse code has become an optional element in amateur radio practice, and many countries have now removed the compulsory Morse component from their amateur radio licence requirements.

Morse is still used outside of the amateur radio world. In aviation, for example, the identification letters of navigation beacons are sent in Morse.

Morse can be very useful for emergency communications, as an intelligible message can be sent under operating conditions that would make a voice call impossible, and the simple technology involved means equipment can be improvised if necessary.

HEALTH & SAFETY I was given some useful advice about tower ropes that may have a hemp inner core covered with steel. If the rope is not greased then rain can soak into the hemp and cause the steel to corrode from within. It looks lovely on the outside but... I have found the book Antenna Towers for Radio Amateurs by Don, K4ZA (from RSGB bookshop) to be a most interesting and helpful read. Bob G4PVB page 96 RadCom June 2016

Levelator I was invited to the studio of Radio Verulam, which is a community station that broadcasts to St Albans and the surrounding district on 926MHz FM. The tower of St Peter's Church is the highest point in St Albans and on a clear day, Canary Wharf in London can be seen. The Radio Verulam studio is just on the outskirts of the Church land and a small transmitter at the studio relays the signal to a transmitter antenna on the Church tower. Therefore, with just a few Watts, Radio Verulam has an impressive coverage. Next door to the studio in the same building is Talking Books for the blind, where audio recordings are made for distribution to the visually impaired. In order to make the recordings easier to listen to, a piece of free software called Levelator is used to enhance the audio.

"Levelator is software that adjusts the audio levels within your podcast or other audio file for variations from one speaker to the next, for example. It's not a compressor, normalizer or limiter although it contains all three. It's much more than those tools, and it's much simpler to use. The UI is dirt-simple: Drag and drop any WAV or AIFF file onto the Levelator's application window and a few moments later you'll find a new version that just sounds better. The gentleman studio operator said: I just drag the file into Levelator, then go have a cup of tea, come back later and the job's done. Bob G4PVB RadioUser Page 40 March 2016

Bob Houston G4PVB is a GB2CW volunteer tutor and I am sure he supports NFD but he sent me this comment and I can tell he feels very strongly about this, "The creeping inexorable use of 599 for all contacts is detrimental to the reputations of NFD and amateur radio in general. Alex M0HCL visited here. 'It's a joke Bob. They give 599 by pressing a button and then request a repeat!'" Bob goes on to say a lot more. Page 42 PW December 2015

599 IN NFD The RST code was developed in 1934 by Arthur W Braaten, W2BSR. As intercontinental communications became more common, competitions were created to challenge stations to make as many contacts as possible with amateur radio stations in other countries. Contests were also formed to provide opportunities for operators to practice their message handling skills, used for routine or emergency communications across long distances. Over time, the number and variety of radio contests has increased and many operators today pursue radio sport as their primary amateur radio activity.
But what's all the fuss about? The fuss is about the interpretation of the quote "competitions were formed to challenge stations to make as many contacts as possible". The point of some of the contests is clearly the quantity of contacts not quality. Therefore, the 599 or even 5nn is merely used as a precursor to the serial number given/received. I hope this settles the matter and it truly is The Last Word but I fear that it could run and run. Life's too short to get upset over 59(9). Bob G4PVB page 96 RadCom October 2015.

SAFETY FIRST I've never used an angle grinder myself but if I did I would be grateful to know the advice given here. Dr Blakeney along with the NHS have gone to the trouble to promote eye safety in particular with regard to angle grinding. At first I was about to ignore it but it occurs to me that amateur radio enthusiasts may well use an angle grinder with regard to metalwork and towers? I guess most of the letters on safety are common sense but in times of haste and / or tiredness sadly common sense isn't always that common.
When you have climbed your ladder correctly you will probably be drilling into brickwork to install RG58 or other cables. "Many eye injuries are caused by DIY accidents. Angle grinding is a real risk since it causes tiny, hot metal filings to shoot out. It's particularly important to avoid getting iron particles in your eyes as there's a risk of a condition called siderosis bulbi, which can affect vision." The advice is to wear proper safety glasses. Bob G4PVB page 97 RadCom November 2015

Fire Safety - I've often toyed with the idea of fire extinguisher in the home/shack but never quite got round to it. Then, at work, we had a fire safety training day. The tutor: "We only have extinguishers here because the insurance company says so. If you want to have a go with an extinguisher then fine but for the most part just get out." CO2 Carbon Dioxide gas extinguisher may cause frost burn if supported with bare hands via the black nozzle or base. It will put a chip pan fire out but the hot fat may reignite. If water extinguisher is used on a chip pan fire it will explode the fat also not suitable for electrical fire. Powder extinguisher very messy and may be unpredictable. Extinguishers will need to be checked for recharge regularly plus they're all heavy. So, as advivsed, I've got myself a fire blanket in the house for shack and kitchen. Made of industrial fibre glass they only cost 16 and merely need attention/replacement if used. Hopefully you won't need to use a fire blanket but it could limit injury e.g. at a hobby radio club barbecue. If someone's clothes catch fire then get them to the ground and smother the flames with the fire blanket.

How I Got Started Dear Don, The RSGB's RadCom is running a 'How I Got Started' theme but I'm sending mine to you. As you read this, you will realise how important PW has been to me. I had a guitar back then was a nylon string Spanish (I cut a lot of lawns to raise the cash) with a clip on piezo-electric pickup. Later I made my own solid body true electric guitar with magnetic pickup. It was rubbish but I loved it and so did all my school friends. I got PW as a lad and there on the pages was the circuit for a fuzz box. I made it in a red metal OXO tin. My guitar now sounded like a chain saw - Wheee!! Subsequently, I joined a gigging band but the amplifier for our microphones only had one input. However, as I remember it, PW had a circuit for simple mixer that I made and we had lots of fun with 'Pub Rock' in the early 70s. My groovy grandma gave me (a young teenager) an old valve radio with a most important 'phonogram' socket on the back into which I would plug my guitar. While resting, I would spin the dial for MW Radio Luxembourg then SW Radio Switzerland for accordion music and Radio Moscow for the latest news on tractor production. But what of all those beeps and squawks? They fascinated me and still do to this day. I joined the Verulam Amateur Radio Club where I was nurtured to my licence and then mentored on club nets. My interest continues with GB2CW and PSK31. The journey is my destination. Bob Houlston G4PVB St Albans Bob also wrote to suggest that amateurs make provision for how their equipment should be disposed after when they become Silent Key. Dismantling and disposing of amateur radio equipment, especially antennas, can be quite daunting and although some local radio clubs will help the widow (or whoever) this isn't always an option. Page 86 PW May 2016

ACCESSIBLE DATA MODE I feel I'm not clever enough to have a smart-phone... and I'm much happier without it!
. Thank you to Norman, G8ATO of Verulam Amateur Radio Club for technical advice.

NETS HOTTEST TOPIC "I can't service my car without diagnostic equipment." Radios similar. Most you'll likely ever do is change the internal memory cell (remember the anti-static mat and 1MOhm wrist strap) then clean the grooves of the knobs with an electric toothbrush prior to trading up. So where's the vision? My focus is gb2cw.eu5.net Several satisfied students. 73 Bob G4PVB

The Amateur's Code by Paul M. Segal, W9EEA (1928)
The Radio Amateur is:
CONSIDERATE never knowingly operating in such a way as to lessen the pleasure of others.
LOYAL offering loyalty, encouragement and support to other amateurs, local clubs and the American Radio Relay League, through which Amateur Radio in the United States is represented nationally and internationally.
PROGRESSIVE with knowledge abreast of science, a well built and efficient station, and operation beyond reproach.
FRIENDLY with slow and patient operation when requested, friendly advice and counsel to the beginner, kindly assistance, co-operation and consideration for the interests of others. These are the hallmarks of the amateur spirit.
BALANCED Radio is an avocation, never interfering with duties owed to family, job, school or community.
PATRIOTIC with station and skill always ready for service to country and community.

6. Morse Code & Apple Pie

Learning Morse
Roger J. Cooke, G3LDI
GB2CW co-coordinator

Morse and Apple Pie Learning Morse is much like Apple Pie. Let me explain. Most people like Apple Pie, but some like it with stewed apple, some with chunky apple. Some like short-crust pastry, others like puff pastry. Some like added sultanas, others like added cloves. (I cannot stand those!) Some like Apple pie with custard, others with ice-cream and yet others like double cream. Morse is much like that. There are numerous methods of learning the Code, and it is a personal choice as to what method you use. No written rules can be made, but some guidelines can be suggested and the method that suits the individual is then the correct one for THAT individual.

Raw Beginners For receiving practice, you have to rely on a ham radio operator who can send/generate Morse code using an oscillator or you can try to find out Morse code transmissions over your radio receiver, such as the GB2CW transmissions. Morse code practice cassettes and multimedia computer software are nowadays available. Remembering the Morse code is an art form by itself. It involves a rhythmic response in your mind. Try to remember the combination of dot (.) and dashes (-) by their sound and not as a group of printed symbols. For this purpose, a dot (.) is referred to as a 'di' and a dash (-) as a 'dah'. A 'di' coming at the end of the combination is pronounced as 'dit'

Tutors have their own methods and I will describe mine. These are not definitive by any means but will provide a starting point. When I start with a new class, I usually start with a couple of letters, and ask the students to repeat the code in dit-dah fashion. Di-dah would therefore be A. I then add another letter, and ask them to repeat them, alternating in uneven sequence until they can have an instantaneous response. Then I send to them on the oscillator, with a keying speed of 20 wpm. This method can be repeated with additional letters being added as we progress. I then send them via Email a print out of the complete code, letters, numbers and punctuation, with the usual pro-signs and Q codes that are used in everyday communication.

Other tutors might have other ideas. I then advise what to do at home with regular practice each day.

Home Practice Home practice can take the form of learning of the complete code, using various methods.

1. Try to engage the help of somebody calling out characters and transpose them into Morse. This can also be done in reverse, using the dit-dah format.
2. Cut some squares of cardboard, an inch square, with a character on one side and the equivalent in Morse on the other. Put them in one pocket and take out one at a time at random. Again, translate from one to the other.
3. As you are driving, translate the registration details of the car in front into Morse, plus any advertising you might see.
4. Listen to the local GB2CW SLOW Morse broadcasts that you might have in your area. You can find the details on the GB2CW Broadcast schedule.

These methods will enable the raw beginner to commit to memory most of the code. It is not an overnight achievement so have patience. You should commit to at least 20 minutes each evening, preferably 30 minutes, but whatever you can spare. This practice has to be constant. Leave it for a week and you will not improve. There will be characters that become stumbling blocks, X, Y, Z, Q etc These are letters with the largest amount of bits, purely because they are the least used. However, they must be as easily recognized as the letter E.

Farnsworth or Koch? Both methods are good and in fact can be used simultaneously. I have always taught using the Farnsworth method. This entails learning the complete code all at once and committing it all to memory. When starting to receive Morse, there might be a bit more thinking time, but it does not matter. This thinking time will gradually decrease with constant practice. A good tutor will always stay a few steps ahead of your ability to copy 100%. If this were not the case, there would be no progress.

The Koch method requires the student to learn 2 or 3 characters and then practice with these at 20 wpm. Obviously thinking time will be less as there are only 2 or 3 characters to choose from! Adding another character then builds up the speed. However, I feel that this takes a longer time to learn and does not necessarily keep all the students at the same level. This will always be a problem due to varying practice times.

Computer Programs There are numerous computer programs that can be used with Morse practice and they can be set up to suit each individual.s needs. Teach, by ZL1AN, and Learning Morse by AA9PW are two very good ones for beginners. However, there are numerous others and a Google search of the Internet will produce loads of them. Try them all, as all practice is good practice.

Listening on the bands This is where the really exciting part helps. Listen to the latest DX-pedition and see how many calls you can copy. Try copying his at first. It may take several attempts as they normally send around 30 wpm. However, with perseverance and patience and practice, you will soon be successful. The three P's are very important in this respect, so don't despair at the first attempt.

The pleasure that you will obtain by being able to use CW at a reasonable speed, finding new contacts and making new friends will outweigh the effort that you had to put in to becoming a proficient CW operator. Remember, Winners never quit but Quitters never win.

Roger J. Cooke, G3LDI
GB2CW co-coordinator

Bob G4PVB Morse Code group training. Source: RSGB

7. GB2CW Introduction
Is this frequency in use please from GB2CW? (PAUSE) "CQ CQ de GB2CW the RSGB Morse practice. Welcome to Broadcasting House, home to the worlds's finest public broadcasting service. The happiest people in broadcasting do radio. As this station is not licensed for two-way communications purposes please do not call GB2CW after close-down. I will be pleased, however, to answer calls using my own call-sign G4PVB and my name is Bob.

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Whilst a Morse qualification is not needed by the present day licence, amateurs are realising that they are missing out on a lot of fun and DX by not using Morse, not to mention the fact that they are limiting themselves to part of the total amateur bandwidth available.

GB2CW the Morse practice service of the RSGB is now temporarily closing down. Myself Bob G4PVB is standing by for calls please."
That concludes this session. Kind regards to any Short Wave Listeners...I wish you good reception conditions. GB2CW is now closing down. "May the Morse be with you." Good-night.